The Three Musketeers by the French writer Alexandre Dumas is one of the top classic books, first published in serial form in 1844. Set in the 17th century, The Three Musketeers recounts the adventures of a young man named d'Artagnan after he leaves home to become a guard of the Musketeers (a "musketeer" was a type of infantry soldier equipped with a musket). The poor d'Artagnan travels to Paris to join the Musketeers. He suffers misadventure and is challenged to a duel by each of three musketeers (Athos, Aramis and Porthos). Attacked by the Cardinal's guards, the four unite and escape. They become inseparable friends who live by the motto "all for one, one for all." The Three Musketeers recounts their adventures as they become embroiled in various intrigues with the royalty of the day, including the French Queen, King Louis XIII, the Duke of Buckingham as well as other memorable characters, including Cardinal Richelieu and Milady de Winter. The Three Musketeers has earned a place in literary history and been adapted to stage and film.